Middle ear infections are one of the most common reasons children visit doctors. These infections often result in temporary hearing loss that can impact on children’s behaviour at home, in childcare and at school. This booklet outlines how to identify when children may have a Conductive Hearing Loss, how this hearing loss can contribute to behaviour problems, anxiety and learning difficulties. It also discusses what families, childcare centres and schools can do to minimise the negative effects of these listening problems experienced by so many children during their childhood. This resource is especially important for those involved with young children, when ear infections are most common, as well for Indigenous children of all ages who commonly experience persistent ear disease during childhood.